Ideal Gas Laws

Particles in a ideal gas:

  • Have no volume
  • Have elastic collisions
  • Are in constant, random, straight-line motion
  • Don’t attract or repel each other
  • Have an average KE directly related to kelvin temperature

Particles in a real gas

  • Have their own volume
  • Attract each other

Gas behaviour is most ideal:

  • At low pressures
  • At high temperatures
  • In nonpolar atoms/molecules

Gas Laws

Boyle's law

The pressure & volume of a gas are inversely proportional to each other when temperature & mass remain constant

\begin{equation}x_{n+1} + x_{n+2}\end{equation}

Avagadro's law

Equal volume of any gas at same temperature & pressure will have the same number of molecules

\begin{equation}\frac{V_1}{n_1}=\frac{V_2}{n_2}\end{equation}

Charles's law

The volume & absolute temperature of a gas are directly proportional at constant mass & pressure

\begin{equation}\frac{V_1}{T_1}=\frac{V_2}{T_2}\end{equation}

Gay-Lussac's law

Pressure is proportional to absolute temperature with constant mass and volume \begin{equation}P \propto T\end{equation}